Federal agencies often ask if Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPCs) result in the energy and cost savings projected during the project development phase. After investing in ESPCs, federal agencies expect a reduction in the total energy use and energy cost at the agency level. Such questions about the program are common when implementing an ESPC project. But is this a fair or accurate perception? More importantly, should the federal agencies evaluate the success or failure of ESPCs by comparing the utility costs before and after project implementation?In fact, ESPC contracts employ measurement and verification (M&V) protocols to measure and ensure kilowatt-hour or BTU savings at the project level. In most cases, the translation to energy cost savings is not based on actual utility rate structure, but a contracted utility rate that takes the existing utility rate at the time the contract is signed with a clause to escalate the utility rate by a fixed percentage for the duration of the contract. Reporting mechanisms, which advertise these savings in dollars, may imply an impact to budgets at a much higher level depending on actual utility rate structure. FEMP has prepared the following analysis to explain why the utility bill reduction may not materialize, demonstrate its larger implication on agency s energy reduction goals, and advocate setting the right expectations at the outset to preempt the often asked question why I am not seeing the savings in my utility bill?

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## Scholarly Works (163 results)

Recent Work (2019)

© ASCE. Forum papers are thought-provoking opinion pieces or essays founded in fact, sometimes containing speculation, on a civil engineering topic of general interest and relevance to the readership of the journal. The views expressed in this Forum article do not necessarily reflect the views of ASCE or the Editorial Board of the journal.

Recent Work (2016)

© 2016 Elsevier Inc. Evaluated nuclear structure and decay data for all nuclei with mass number A = 109 (Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, I, Xe) are presented. The experimental data are compiled and evaluated, and the best values for level and gamma-ray energies, quantum numbers, lifetimes, gamma-ray intensities, and other nuclear properties are recommended. Inconsistencies and discrepancies that exist in the literature are noted. This work supersedes the earlier evaluation by J. Blachot (2006Bl02), published in Nuclear Data Sheets 107, 355 (2006).

Faculty (2018)

We explicitly calculate the triangle inequalities for the group PSO(8).
Therefore we explicitly solve the eigenvalues of sum problem for this group
(equivalently describing the side-lengths of geodesic triangles in the
corresponding symmetric space for the Weyl chamber-valued metric). We then
apply some computer programs to verify two basic questions/conjectures. First,
we verify that the above system of inequalities is irredundant. Then, we verify
the ``saturation conjecture'' for the decomposition of tensor products of
finite-dimensional irreducible representations of Spin(8). Namely, we show that
for any triple of dominant weights a, b, c such that a+b+c is in the root
lattice, and any positive integer N, the tensor product of the irreducible
representations V(a) and V(b) contains V(c) if and only if the tensor product
of V(Na) and V(Nb) contains V(Nc).

© 2018 American Economic Association. All rights reserved. We survey New Zealand firms and document novel facts about their macroeconomic beliefs. There is widespread dispersion in beliefs about past and future macroeconomic conditions, especially inflation. This dispersion in beliefs is consistent with firms' incentives to collect and process information. Using experimental methods, we find that firms update their beliefs in a Bayesian manner when presented with new information about the economy and that changes in their beliefs affect their decisions. Inflation is not generally perceived as being important to business decisions so firms devote few resources to collecting and processing information about inflation.