PURPOSE: To determine the utility of focal high-dose-rate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer, we investigated the impact on target coverage and dose to organs at risk (OARs) with hemigland (HG) compared with whole-gland (WG) treatment. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 10 WG implants were used to generate 10 WG and 20 HG (left and right) treatment plans optimized with the inverse planning simulation annealing algorithm using Oncentra MasterPlan (Nucletron B.V., Veenendaal, The Netherlands). The standard distribution of 17-18 catheters designed for WG was used to generate HG plans. The same OARs namely bladder, rectum, and urethra contours and dose constraints were applied for HG and WG plans. The HG contour was a modification of the WG contour whereby the urethra divided the prostate into HGs. The prescription dose was 7.25 Gy×6. Evaluated dose parameters were target dose D90, V100, and V150 and D0.1 cc, D1 cc, and D2 cc to OARs. RESULTS: The HG plans had a D90, V100, and V150 to the HG target of 112%, 97.6%, and 33.8%, respectively. The WG plans had a D90, V100, and V150 to the WG target of 108%, 98.8%, and 26.5%, respectively. The OAR D2 cc doses were significantly lower in HG vs. WG plans: rectum (53.1% vs. 64.1%, p<0.0001), bladder (55.9% vs. 67.5%, p<0.0001), and urethra (69.3% vs. 95.2%, p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In the present model, HG plans yielded a statistically significant decreased radiation dose to OARs and provided complete target coverage with a catheter array designed for WG coverage. The good dosimetry results obtained in this study support the feasibility of HG brachytherapy by using a subset of the WG catheter array. Catheter distribution and dosimetry refinements tailored to subtotal prostate brachytherapy should be explored to see if further improvements in dosimetry can be achieved.