The endogenous fatty acid ethanolamide, palmitylethanolamide, alleviated, in a dose-dependent manner, pain behaviors elicited in mice by injections of formalin (5%, intraplantar), acetic acid (0.6%, 0.5 ml per animal, intraperitoneal, i.p.), kaolin (2.5 mg per animal, i.p.), and magnesium sulfate (120 mg per kg, i.p.). The antinociceptive effects of palmitylethanolamide were prevented by the cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist SR144528 [N-([1s]-endo-1.3.3-trimethylbicyclo[2.3.1]heptan-2-yl)-5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)-pyrazole-3-carboxamide], not by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A [N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide x HCl]. By contrast, palmitylethanolamide had no effect on capsaicin-evoked pain behavior or thermal nociception. The endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide (arachidonylethanolamide), alleviated nociception in all tests (formalin, acetic acid, kaolin, magnesium sulfate, capsaicin and hot plate). These effects were prevented by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A, not the cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist SR141716A. Additional fatty acid ethanolamides (oleylethanolamide, myristylethanolamide, palmitoleylethanolamide, palmitelaidylethanolamide) had little or no effect on formalin-evoked pain behavior, and were not investigated in other pain models. These results support the hypothesis that endogenous palmitylethanolamide participates in the intrinsic control of pain initiation. They also suggest that the putative receptor site activated by palmitylethanolamide may provide a novel target for peripherally acting analgesic drugs.