Loci detected by Southern blot hybridization of 3,977 expressed sequence tag unigenes were mapped into 159 chromosome bins delineated by breakpoints of a series of overlapping deletions. These data were used to assess synteny levels along homoeologous chromosomes of the wheat A, B, and D genomes, in relation to both bin position on the centromere-telomere axis and the gradient of recombination rates along chromosome arms. Synteny level decreased with the distance of a chromosome region from the centromere. It also decreased with an increase in recombination rates along the average chromosome arm. There were twice as many unique loci in the B genome than in the A and D genomes, and synteny levels between the B genome chromosomes and the A and D genome homoeologues were lower than those between the A and D genome homoeologues. These differences among the wheat genomes were attributed to differences in the mating systems of wheat diploid ancestors. Synteny perturbations were characterized in 31 paralogous sets of loci with perturbed synteny. Both insertions and deletions of loci were detected and both preferentially occurred in high recombination regions of chromosomes.