© 2016 Elsevier Inc. Although individuals in substance use disorders (SUD) treatment continue to smoke at high rates, regulatory, policy and programming changes promoting tobacco cessation are being implemented and some patients quit successfully. We examined associations of smoking patterns, tobacco advertising receptivity, anti-tobacco message awareness, health risk perception, attitudes towards addressing smoking and availability of smoking cessation services with quitting smoking during SUD treatment. Surveys were completed by 1127 patients in 24 programs chosen randomly, stratified by program type (residential, methadone maintenance, outpatient), from among publicly funded, adult treatment programs within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. Among respondents who had been in SUD treatment for at least one month, there were 631 current smokers and 52 former smokers who reported quitting smoking during treatment for at least one month prior to survey completion; these respondents comprised our sample (N = 683). Results showed that participants who reported health concerns as a reason for quitting were 1.27 times more likely to have quit during treatment (p = 0.015) than those reporting health concerns affected quitting a little or not at all. Additionally, participants who reported that smoking cessation was part of their personal treatment plan during SUD treatment were 1.08 times more likely to have quit during treatment (p < 0.001). Participants in methadone treatment were 49% less likely to report successfully quitting during treatment than those in outpatient treatment (95%CI: 0. 35–0.75, p < 0.001). Leveraging health concerns about smoking and including smoking cessation in an individualized treatment plan may help increase smoking cessation during SUD treatment.