BACKGROUND/AIMS:The association between serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients has previously been reported and may be a result of increased vascular calcification and inflammation. Here we report, for the first time, the effects of pharmacologic epigenetic modulation on levels of ALP and kidney function via a novel oral small molecule BET inhibitor, apabetalone, in CKD patients. METHODS:A post-hoc analysis evaluated patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73m2, who participated in the apabetalone phase 2 randomized controlled trials (SUSTAIN and ASSURE). 48 CKD subjects with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) were treated with 100mg twice-daily of 24 and 26 weeks of apabetalone or placebo. ALP and eGFR were measured prior to randomization and at final visits. RESULTS:Patients who received apabetalone (n=35) versus placebo (n=13) over 6 months showed significantly (p=0.02) lowered serum ALP -14.0% (p<0.0001 versus baseline) versus -6.3% (p=0.9 versus baseline). The eGFR in the apabetalone group increased by 3.4% (1.7 mL/min/1.73 m2) (p=0.04 versus baseline) and decreased by 5.8% (2.9 mL/min/1.73 m2) (p=0.6 versus baseline) in the placebo group. Apabetalone was well tolerated. CONCLUSION:A post-hoc analysis of CKD subjects from the SUSTAIN and ASSURE randomized controlled trials demonstrated favorable effects of apabetalone on ALP and eGFR, and generated the hypothesis that epigenetic modulation by BET inhibition may potentially offer a novel therapeutic strategy to treat CVD and progressive kidney function loss in CKD patients. This is being examined in the phase III trial BETonMACE.