© Ivyspring International Publisher. Understanding the contribution of vascular cells to blood vessel remodeling is critical for the development of new therapeutic approaches to cure cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and regenerate blood vessels. Recent findings suggest that neointimal formation and atherosclerotic lesions involve not only inflammatory cells, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells, but also several types of stem cells or progenitors in arterial walls and the circulation. Some of these stem cells also participate in the remodeling of vascular grafts, microvessel regeneration, and formation of fibrotic tissue around biomaterial implants. Here we review the recent findings on how adult stem cells participate in CVD development and regeneration as well as the current state of clinical trials in the field, which may lead to new approaches for cardiovascular therapies and tissue engineering.