Maternal lipid profiles during pregnancy are associated with risk for preterm birth. This study investigates the association between maternal dyslipidemia and subsequent preterm birth among pregnant women in the state of California. Births were identified from California birth certificate and hospital discharge records from 2007-2012 (N = 2,865,987). Preterm birth was defined as <37 weeks completed gestation and dyslipidemia was defined by diagnostic codes. Subtypes of preterm birth were classified as preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), spontaneous labor, and medically indicated, according to birth certificate data and diagnostic codes. The association between dyslipidemia and preterm birth was tested with logistic regression. Models were adjusted for maternal age at delivery, race/ethnicity, hypertension, pre-pregnancy body mass index, insurance type, and education. Maternal dyslipidemia was significantly associated with increased odds of preterm birth (adjusted OR: 1.49, 95%CI: 1.39, 1.59). This finding was consistent across all subtypes of preterm birth, including PPROM (adjusted OR: 1.54, 95%CI: 1.34, 1.76), spontaneous (adjusted OR: 1.51, 95%CI: 1.39, 1.65), and medically indicated (adjusted OR: 1.454, 95%CI: 1.282, 1.649). This study suggests that maternal dyslipidemia is associated with increased risk for all types of preterm birth.