The purpose of this study was to determine whether the rat urinary bladder augmented by an acellular matrix graft can restore the bladder's low-pressure reservoir function and preserve normal micturition. After partial cystectomy (> 50%) and grafting with the bladder acellular matrix graft (BAMG), storage and voiding functions were monitored in 20 rats by means of a specially designed "micturition cage," leak-point cystography, and cystometry. After 4 months, sections (n = 6) were examined histologically to evaluate regeneration of bladder wall components within the BAMG. Bladder capacity and compliance increased progressively and were significantly higher in the grafted animals than in controls (partial cystectomy only), and volumes per void were significantly higher than in either control or normal animals. At 4 months, the regenerated urothelium, smooth muscle, blood vessels and nerves within the BAMG were qualitatively identical to normal bladder wall. Augmentation cystoplasty with the homologous BAMG leads to morphologic and functional rat bladder regeneration, thus enhancing low-pressure reservoir function and preserving normal micturition.