Statistical shape modelling (SSM) of radiographs has been used to explore relationships between altered joint shape and hip osteoarthritis (OA). We aimed to apply SSM to Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) hip scans, and examine associations between resultant hip shape modes (HSMs), radiographic hip OA (RHOA), and hip pain, in a large population based cohort.SSM was performed on baseline hip DXA scans from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study. Associations between the top ten HSMs, and prevalent RHOA from pelvic radiographs obtained 4.6 years later, were analysed in 4100 participants. RHOA was defined as Croft score ≥2. Hip pain was based on pain on walking, hip pain on examination, and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC).The five HSMs associated with RHOA showed features of either pincer- or cam-type deformities. HSM 1 (increased pincer-type deformity) was positively associated with RHOA [1.23 (1.09, 1.39)] [odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI]. HSM 8 (reduced pincer-type deformity) was inversely associated with RHOA [0.79 (0.70, 0.89)]. HSM 10 (increased cam-type deformity) was positively associated with RHOA [1.21 (1.07, 1.37)]. HSM 3 and HSM 4 (reduced cam-type deformity) were inversely associated with RHOA [0.73 (0.65, 0.83) and 0.82 (0.73, 0.93), respectively]. HSM 3 was inversely related to pain on examination [0.84 (0.76, 0.92)] and walking [0.88, (0.81, 0.95)], and to WOMAC score [0.87 (0.80, 0.93)].DXA-derived measures of hip shape are associated with RHOA, and to a lesser extent hip pain, possibly reflecting their role in the pathogenesis of hip OA.