© 2014 by Turkish Thoracic Society. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disease with major consequences. Obesity and aging, as well as male gender, are recognized risk factors for OSA; however, the condition of OSA in women and the elderly has received only minimal attention. OSA in women is perhaps under-appreciated due to the traditional stereotype of an older obese man presenting with OSA. However, OSA in women, particularly post-menopause, can have important sequelae. Similarly, OSA in the elderly may have unique mechanisms, and the consequences are still debated. Further work is clearly needed to define the mechanisms and consequences of OSA in special populations.