Purpose: Preclinical models have shown that the effectiveness of GL-ONC1, a modified oncolytic vaccinia virus, is enhanced by radiation and chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the safety of GL-ONC1 when delivered intravenously with chemoradiotherapy to patients with primary, nonmetastatic head and neck cancer.Experimental Design: Patients with locoregionally advanced unresected, nonmetastatic carcinoma of the head/neck, excluding stage III-IVA p16-positive oropharyngeal cancers, were treated with escalating doses and cycles of intravenous GL-ONC1, along with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The primary aims were to define the MTD and dose-limiting toxicities, and to recommend a dose for phase II trials.Results: Between May 2012 and December 2014, 19 patients were enrolled. The most frequent adverse reactions included grade 1-2 rigors, fever, fatigue, and rash. Grade 3 adverse reactions included hypotension, mucositis, nausea, and vomiting. In 2 patients, the rash was confirmed as viral in origin by fluorescence imaging and viral plaque assay. In 4 patients, viral presence in tumor was confirmed on midtreatment biopsy by quantitative PCR. In 1 patient, live virus was confirmed in a tongue tumor 7 days after receiving the first dose of virus. The MTD was not reached. With median follow-up of 30 months, 1-year (2-year) progression-free survival and overall survival were 74.4% (64.1%) and 84.6% (69.2%), respectively.Conclusions: Delivery of GL-ONC1 is safe and feasible in patients with locoregionally advanced head/neck cancer undergoing standard chemoradiotherapy. A phase II study is warranted to further investigate this novel treatment strategy. Clin Cancer Res; 23(19); 5696-702. ©2017 AACR.