Background:Type 2 resistant starch (RS2) has been shown to improve glycemic control and some cardiovascular endpoints in rodent and human studies. Objective:The aim of this study was to perform one of the first randomized clinical trials in adults with prediabetes and one of the longest trials to test whether RS2 can improve cardiometabolic health. Design:68 overweight [body mass index (BMI) ≥27 kg/m2] adults aged 35-75 y with prediabetes were randomized to consume 45 g/d of high-amylose maize (RS2) or an isocaloric amount of the rapidly digestible starch amylopectin (control) for 12 wk. At baseline and postintervention, ectopic fat depots (visceral adipose tissue, intrahepatic lipids, and intramyocellular lipids) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging/spectroscopy, energy metabolism by respiratory chamber, and carbohydrate metabolism by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), an intravenous glucose tolerance test, and a meal tolerance test. Cardiovascular risk factors-serum lipids, blood pressure, heart rate, and inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP], interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α)-were also measured. The primary endpoints were insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, ectopic fat, and markers of inflammation. Data were primarily analyzed as treatment effects via a linear mixed model both with and without the addition of covariates. Results:Relative to the control group, RS2 lowered HbA1c by a clinically insignificant 0.1 ± 0.2% (Δ = -1 ± 2 mmol/mol; P = 0.05) but did not affect insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, the disposition index, or glucose or insulin areas under the curve relative to baseline (P ≥ 0.23). RS2 decreased heart rate by 5 ± 9 beats/min (P = 0.02) and TNF-α concentrations by 2.1 ± 2.7 pg/mL (P = 0.004), relative to the control group. Ectopic fat, energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, and all other cardiovascular risk factors were unaffected (P ≥ 0.06). Conclusions:12 wk of supplementation with resistant starch reduced the inflammatory marker TNF-α and heart rate, but it did not significantly improve glycemic control and other cardiovascular disease risk factors, in adults with prediabetes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01708694.