In this cross-sectional study, we describe the composition and diversity of the gut microbiota among undernourished children living in urban slums of Mumbai, India, and determine how nutritional status, including anthropometric measurements, dietary intakes from complementary foods, feeding practices, and micronutrient concentrations, is associated with their gut microbiota. We collected rectal swabs from children aged 10 to 18 months living in urban slums of Mumbai participating in a randomized controlled feeding trial and conducted 16S rRNA sequencing to determine the composition of the gut microbiota. Across the study cohort, Proteobacteria dominated the gut microbiota at over 80% relative abundance, with Actinobacteria representation at <4%, suggesting immaturity of the gut. Increased microbial α-diversity was associated with current breastfeeding, greater head circumference, higher fat intake, and lower hemoglobin concentration and weight-for-length Z-score. In redundancy analyses, 47% of the variation in Faith's phylogenetic diversity (Faith's PD) could be accounted for by age and by iron and polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes. Differences in community structure (β-diversity) of the microbiota were observed among those consuming fats and oils the previous day compared to those not consuming fats and oils the previous day. Our findings suggest that growth, diet, and feeding practices are associated with gut microbiota metrics in undernourished children, whose gut microbiota were comprised mainly of Proteobacteria, a phylum containing many potentially pathogenic taxa.IMPORTANCE The impact of comprehensive nutritional status, defined as growth, nutritional blood biomarkers, dietary intakes, and feeding practices, on the gut microbiome in children living in low-resource settings has remained underreported in microbiome research. Among undernourished children living in urban slums of Mumbai, India, we observed a high relative abundance of Proteobacteria, a phylum including many potentially pathogenic species similar to the composition in preterm infants, suggesting immaturity of the gut, or potentially a high inflammatory burden. We found head circumference, fat and iron intake, and current breastfeeding were positively associated with microbial diversity, while hemoglobin and weight for length were associated with lower diversity. Findings suggest that examining comprehensive nutrition is critical to gain more understanding of how nutrition and the gut microbiota are linked, particularly in vulnerable populations such as children in urban slum settings.