Low blood dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels have strong positive associations with stroke and coronary heart disease. However, it is unclear whether DHEAS is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, we examined the association between cardiovascular risk factors and DHEAS concentration among a high-risk population of Latinos (Puerto Ricans aged 45 to 75 years at baseline) in a cross-sectional analysis of the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. Of eligible participants, 72% completed baseline interviews and provided blood samples. Complete data were available for 1355 participants. Associations between cardiovascular risk factors (age, sex, total cholesterol, high-density lipid cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose) and log-transformed DHEAS (μg/dL) were assessed. In robust multivariable regression analyses, DHEAS was significantly inversely associated with age (β = -12.4; 95% CI: -15.2, -9.7; per 5 years), being female (vs. male) (β = -46; 95% CI: -55.3, -36.6), and plasma triglyceride concentration (β = -0.2; 95% CI: -0.3, -0.1; per 10 mg/dL) and was positively associated with total cholesterol and plasma glucose levels (β = 1.8; 95% CI: 0.6, 3 and β = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.3, respectively, per 10 mg/dL) after adjustment for smoking, alcohol, and physical activity and for postmenopausal hormone use in women. Estimates were unchanged after adjustment for measures of chronic disease and inflammation. Women exhibited a stronger age-related decline in DHEAS and a positive association with glucose in contrast to findings among men (P interaction < 0.05). In conclusion, in this large study of Latinos with a heavy cardiovascular risk factor burden, we observed significant associations between cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and DHEAS, with variations by sex. These findings improve our understanding of the role DHEAS may play in CVD etiology.