Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) are linked to regulating vascular/neuro-inflammation and stroke. Using a retrospective design, we investigated whether circulating Lp-PLA2 and SOD in cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) patients were associated with cognitive impairment. Eighty-seven CSVD patients were recruited. Plasma Lp-PLA2 and SOD were determined, and cognitive status was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The severity of white matter hypoerintensities (WMHs) in CSVD patients was rated according to Fazekas scales, and Lp-PLA2/SOD levels and MMSE/MoCA were compared. Multiple linear regressions were used to evaluate the relationship between Lp-PLA2 and SOD and the cognitive impairment. Ordinal logistic regression and generalized linear models (OLRGLMs) were applied to confirm whether Lp-PLA2 and SOD are independent risk factors for cognitive impairment in CVSD. Lp-PLA2 and SOD with mild or severe cognitive impairment were lower than those with normal congnition. Lp-PLA2 and SOD in CSVD patients with severe WMHs were significantly lower than those with mild or moderate WMH lesions. We noted positive linear associations of Lp-PLA and SOD with cognitive impairment in CSVD, independent of LDL-C. OLRGLMs confirmed that Lp-PLA2 and SOD were independent risk factors of cognitive impairment in CSVD. Lp-PLA2 and SOD are independently associated with cognitive impairment and WMH lesion, and may be useful for the rapid evaluation of cognitive impairment in CSVD. Lp-PLA2/SOD are modifiable factors that may be considered as therapeutic targets for preventing cognitive impairment in CSVD.