Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with a significantly increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major cause of AKI. In this study, we investigated the role of the endocannabinoid (EC) system in renal IRI using a well-established mouse model. Materials and Methods: Renal ischemia was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by clamping both kidney pedicles for 30 min followed by 24 h of reperfusion. To increase renal 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) levels, mice were pretreated with JZL184 (16 mg/kg), 30 min before IRI. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), renal tubular damage, renal content of ECs and renal expression of markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were measured. Results: Renal IRI was associated with significantly increased serum BUN and creatinine, increased tubular damage score, increased expression of renal markers of inflammation and oxidative stress and elevated renal 2-AG content. Pretreatment with JZL184 was associated with a significant increase in renal 2-AG content and there was also improved serum BUN, creatinine and tubular damage score. However, renal expression of inflammation and oxidative stress markers remained unchanged. Conclusions: This is the first report documenting that renal IRI is associated with an increase in kidney 2-AG content. Further enhancement of 2-AG levels using JZL184 improved indices of renal function and histology, but did not lower renal expression of markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms responsible for the effects observed and the potential value of 2-AG as a therapeutic target in renal IRI.