The lysosomal membrane is the locus for sensing cellular nutrient levels, which are transduced to mTORC1 via the Rag GTPases and the Ragulator complex. The crystal structure of the five-subunit human Ragulator at 1.4 Å resolution was determined. Lamtor1 wraps around the other four subunits to stabilize the assembly. The Lamtor2:Lamtor3 dimer stacks upon Lamtor4:Lamtor5 to create a platform for Rag binding. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange was used to map the Rag binding site to the outer face of the Lamtor2:Lamtor3 dimer and to the N-terminal intrinsically disordered region of Lamtor1. EM was used to reconstruct the assembly of the full-length RagAGTP:RagCGDP dimer bound to Ragulator at 16 Å resolution, revealing that the G-domains of the Rags project away from the Ragulator core. The combined structural model shows how Ragulator functions as a platform for the presentation of active Rags for mTORC1 recruitment, and might suggest an unconventional mechanism for Rag GEF activity.