ObjectiveThis study was designed to evaluate the severity of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with asymptomatic impaired fasting glucose (IFG) compared to those with diabetes mellitus (DM) and normal fasting glucose (NFG), as measured by coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA).
DesignSubjects were divided into three groups: NFG (<100 mg/dL), IFG (100-125 mg/dL) and DM. Coronary artery calcium on non-contrast CT and plaque analysis on CCTA were performed.
SettingUniversity hospital, single centre.
Participants216 asymptomatic participants prospectively underwent CCTA for the evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD).
Primary and secondary outcome measuresAtherosclerotic plaque burden in IFG compared to NFG patients.
Results2664 segments were analysed in 120 NFG, 44 IFG and 52 DM participants. The mean calcium scores were 178±395, 259±510 and 414±836 for NFG, IFG and DM, respectively (p=0·037). The mean plaque burdens in the NFG, IFG and DM groups were 0.31±0.45, 0.50±0.69 and 0.68±0.69, respectively (p=0·0007). A greater proportion of patients with DM (19/52, 36.5%) and IFG (13/44, 29.5%) had obstructive CAD compared to those with NFG (16/120, 13.3%) (p=0.0015). The number of segments with severe disease was significantly higher in the DM (60/637, 9.4%) and IFG (42/539, 7.8%) groups compared to that in the NFG group (34/1488, 2.3%) (p=0.0001).
Conclusions(1) IFG and DM have significantly higher, but comparable, calcium scores, plaque burden and obstructive CAD compared to NFG in asymptomatic individuals. (2) Pending corroboration by other reports, more intensive efforts may be devoted to the evaluation and treatment of patients with IFG.