Here, we report proteomic analyses of 129 human cortical tissues to define changes associated with the asymptomatic and symptomatic stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Network analysis revealed 16 modules of co-expressed proteins, 10 of which correlated with AD phenotypes. A subset of modules overlapped with RNA co-expression networks, including those associated with neurons and astroglial cell types, showing altered expression in AD, even in the asymptomatic stages. Overlap of RNA and protein networks was otherwise modest, with many modules specific to the proteome, including those linked to microtubule function and inflammation. Proteomic modules were validated in an independent cohort, demonstrating some module expression changes unique to AD and several observed in other neurodegenerative diseases. AD genetic risk loci were concentrated in glial-related modules in the proteome and transcriptome, consistent with their causal role in AD. This multi-network analysis reveals protein- and disease-specific pathways involved in the etiology, initiation, and progression of AD.