Plants have evolved various strategies to sense and respond to saline environments, which severely reduce plant growth and limit agricultural productivity. Alteration to the cell wall is one strategy that helps plants adapt to salt stress. However, the physiological mechanism of how the cell wall components respond to salt stress is not fully understood. Here, we show that expression of XTH30, encoding xyloglucan endotransglucosylase-hydrolase30, is strongly up-regulated in response to salt stress in Arabidopsis. Loss-of-function of XTH30 leads to increased salt tolerance and overexpression of XTH30 results in salt hypersensitivity. XTH30 is located in the plasma membrane and is highly expressed in the root, flower, stem, and etiolated hypocotyl. The NaCl-induced increase in xyloglucan (XyG)-derived oligosaccharide (XLFG) of the wild type is partly blocked in xth30 mutants. Loss-of-function of XTH30 slows down the decrease of crystalline cellulose content and the depolymerization of microtubules caused by salt stress. Moreover, lower Na+ accumulation in shoot and lower H2O2 content are found in xth30 mutants in response to salt stress. Taken together, these results indicate that XTH30 modulates XyG side chains, altered abundance of XLFG, cellulose synthesis, and cortical microtubule stability, and negatively affecting salt tolerance.