In this paper, ultrasonic attenuation of engineering materials is evaluated comprehensively, covering metals, ceramics, polymers, fiber-reinforced composites, wood, and rocks. After verifying two reliable experimental methods, 336 measurements are conducted and their results are tabulated. Attenuation behavior is determined over broadband spectra, extending up to 15 MHz in low attenuating materials. The attenuation spectra are characterized in combination with four power law terms, with many showing linear frequency dependence, with or without Rayleigh scattering. Dislocation damping effects are re-evaluated and a new mechanism is proposed to explain some of the linear frequency dependencies. Additionally, quadratic and cubic dependencies due to Datta–Kinra scattering and Biwa scattering, respectively, are used for some materials to construct model relations. From many test results, some previously hidden behaviors emerged upon data evaluation. Effects of cold working, tempering, and annealing are complex and sometimes contradictory. Comparison to available literature was attempted for some, but most often prior data were unavailable. This collection of new attenuation data will be of value in materials selection and in designing structural health monitoring and non-destructive inspection protocols.