This pre-post evaluation aimed to measure changes in knowledge and attitudes towards drug users among community representatives in Kabul, Afghanistan, over a period of expansion of harm reduction and drug dependence programming. A convenience sample of 160 professionals aged 18+ years completed interview questionnaires in 2007 and 2009. Views endorsing programme quality and the provision of condoms, infection counselling/testing and needle/syringe distribution increased significantly over the 2-year period. In 13 of 38 statements, there was a substantial (> 10%) change in agreement level, most commonly among men and medical professionals. Attitudes concerning support of drug users remained largely positive, with substantial attitude changes in some subgroups of the population. Further community education through the media and a more cohesive government drug policy may be needed to strengthen community support for harm reduction/drug treatment in Afghanistan.