Peptoid nanosheets are supramolecular protein-mimetic materials that form from amphiphilic polypeptoids with aromatic and ionic side chains. Nanosheets have been studied at the nanometer scale, but the molecular structure has been difficult to probe. We report the use of 13C-13C dipolar recoupling solid-state NMR measurements to reveal the configuration of backbone amide bonds selected by 13C isotopic labeling of adjacent α-carbons. Measurements on the same molecules in the amorphous state and in nanosheets revealed that amide bonds in the center of the amino block of peptoid (NaeNpe)7-(NceNpe)7 (B28) favor the trans configuration in the amorphous state and the cis configuration in the nanosheet. This unexpected result contrasts with previous NMR and theoretical studies of short solvated peptoids. Furthermore, examination of the amide bond at the junction of the two charged blocks within B28 revealed a mixture of both cis and trans configurational states, consistent with the previously predicted brickwork-like intermolecular organization.