Soy supplementation by patients with breast cancer remains controversial. No controlled intervention studies have investigated the effects of soy supplementation on mammographic density in patients with breast cancer. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention study in previously treated patients with breast cancer (n = 66) and high-risk women (n = 29). We obtained digital mammograms and breast MRI scans at baseline and after 12 months of daily soy (50 mg isoflavones per day; n = 46) or placebo (n = 49) tablet supplementation. The total breast area (MA) and the area of mammographic density (MD) on the mammogram were measured using a validated computer-assisted method, and mammographic density percent (MD% = 100 × MD/MA) was determined. A well-tested computer algorithm was used to quantitatively measure the total breast volume (TBV) and fibroglandular tissue volume (FGV) on the breast MRI, and the FGV percent (FGV% = 100 × FGV/TBV) was calculated. On the basis of plasma soy isoflavone levels, compliance was excellent. Small decreases in MD% measured by the ratios of month 12 to baseline levels were seen in the soy (0.95) and the placebo (0.87) groups; these changes did not differ between the treatments (P = 0.38). Small decreases in FGV% were also found in both the soy (0.90) and the placebo (0.92) groups; these changes also did not differ between the treatments (P = 0.48). Results were comparable in patients with breast cancer and high-risk women. We found no evidence that soy supplementation would decrease mammographic density and that MRI might be more sensitive to changes in density than mammography.