We aimed to determine the relationship of circulating adipokines and inflammatory biomarkers with fatty liver among men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.Noncontrast computed tomography was used to assess fatty liver and measure abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area in 526 participants without history of cardiovascular disease, heavy alcohol use, or viral hepatitis infection. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations of circulating biomarker levels with fatty liver.Three hundred twenty-nine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men had higher levels of several inflammatory biomarkers compared with 197 HIV-uninfected men. Among HIV-uninfected men, increased adiponectin was associated with lower odds of fatty liver (odds ratio [OR] = 0.51 per doubling, P = .02), whereas higher odds of fatty liver was observed with increased levels of the proinflammatory markers intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 (OR = 5.30, P = .004), C-reactive protein (OR = 1.66, P = .002), interleukin (IL)-6 (OR = 1.67, P = .03), and tumor necrosis factor α receptor 2 (OR = 6.55, P = .003). Among HIV-infected men, ICAM-1 was the only proinflammatory marker associated with greater odds of fatty liver (OR = 2.67, P = .02), whereas higher adiponectin (OR = 0.57, P = .003), and osteoprotegerin levels (OR = 0.48, P = .03) were associated with lower odds. These associations were all independent of VAT.Fatty liver is associated with a heightened inflammatory state independent of visceral adiposity in HIV-uninfected men but not in HIV-infected men. However, a heightened anti-inflammatory state may protect against fatty liver regardless of HIV serostatus.