BACKGROUND:High-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) elevations are associated with incident cardiovascular disease events in primary prevention samples. However, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. METHODS:We studied 458 men without known cardiovascular disease who participated in the cardiovascular disease substudy of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and had cardiac CT angiography. We used multivariable linear and logistic regression models to examine the cross-sectional associations between coronary artery stenosis, coronary artery plaque, indexed left ventricular mass (LVMi), and the outcome of hs-cTnI. We also evaluated the associations between HIV serostatus or use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and hs-cTnI. RESULTS:The mean age was 54 years, 54% were white, and 61% were HIV infected. In multivariable-adjusted logistic models, comparing the highest quartile of LVMi with the lowest quartile, the odds ratio (OR) of hs-cTnI ≥75th percentile was 2.59 (95% CI, 1.20-5.75). There was no significant association between coronary stenosis severity or plaque type and hs-cTnI in linear models; however, in logistic regression models, coronary artery stenosis ≥70% (8% of sample) was marginally associated with a higher likelihood (OR, 2.75 [95% CI, 1.03, 7.27]) of having hs-cTnI ≥75th percentile. There were no associations between HIV serostatus or HAART use and hs-cTnI in either linear or logistic models. CONCLUSION:Among primary prevention men with or at risk for HIV, hs-cTnI concentrations were strongly associated with LVMi but were not associated with HIV infection or treatment status or with coronary plaque type or stenosis until the extremes of severity (≥70% stenosis).