The associations between objective measures of sleep duration and bone outcomes in older men are unknown. No consistent, significant association was identified between sleep duration and bone mineral density (BMD) in the current analysis. However, future research should determine if vitamin D status modifies this relationship. INTRODUCTION:Prior studies, predominantly in women, reported that long and short self-reported sleep duration are associated with lower BMD. Associations between actigraphy-determined sleep duration and BMD or bone turnover markers (BTMs) in older men are unknown. METHODS:Men in The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study with wrist actigraphy and concurrent BMD assessment but without comorbidities affecting bone health were included. Sleep duration was considered as a continuous (N = 1926) and dichotomized variable where men were classified as getting the recommended (7-8 h/night; N = 478) or short (< 6 h/night; N = 577) sleep. The cross-sectional association between BMD, BTMs, and sleep duration was examined using a t test or linear regression, where appropriate, in unadjusted and adjusted models. RESULTS:There were no clinically or statistically significant differences in BMD at the L-spine, total hip, or femoral neck between men getting the recommended vs. short sleep duration, using actigraphy or self-reported sleep duration (all p ≥ 0.07). When sleep duration was considered as a continuous variable, femoral neck BMD was higher in men with longer self-reported sleep duration (β = 0.006 ±0.003, p = 0.02), but this was not significant after further adjustment. In men with low 25OHD (< 20 ng/mL), longer actigraphy-determined sleep duration was associated with higher total hip BMD (β = 0.016 ± 0.008; p = 0.04). Sleep duration and BTMs were not associated. CONCLUSION:Sleep duration was not associated with hip or L-spine BMD or BTMs in older men. Future research should determine if vitamin D status or other factors modify this relationship.