At the Second International Conference on Cervical Cancer, held April 11-14, 2002, experts in cervical cancer prevention, detection, and treatment reviewed the need for more research in chemoprevention, including prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines, immunomodulators, peptides, and surrogate endpoint biomarkers. Investigators and clinicians noted the need for more rigorous Phase I randomized clinical trials, more attention to the risk factors that can affect study results in this patient population, and validation of optical technologies that will provide valuable quantitative information in real time regarding disease regression and progression. They discussed the role of the human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer development and the importance of developing strategies to suppress HPV persistence and progression. Results in Phase I randomized clinical trials have been disappointing because few have demonstrated statistically significant regression attributable to the agent tested. Researchers recommended using a transgenic mouse model to test and validate new compounds, initiating vaccine and immunomodulator trials, and developing immunologic surrogate endpoint biomarkers.