8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome (EMS) is a hematopoietic stem cell disorder characterized by myeloid hyperplasia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with chromosomal translocations fusing several genes, most commonly ZNF198, to fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1). However, patients with BCR-FGFR1 fusion present with typical chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). We demonstrate that ZNF198-FGFR1 induces EMS-like disease in mice, with myeloproliferation and T lymphoma arising from common multipotential progenitors. Mutation of FGFR1 Tyr766 attenuates both myeloid and lymphoid diseases, identifying phospholipase C-gamma1 as a downstream effector. Bcr-FGFR1 binds Grb2 via Bcr Tyr177 and induces CML-like leukemia in mice, whereas Bcr-FGFR1/Y177F lacks Grb2 binding and causes EMS-like disease. These results implicate different signaling pathways originating from both kinase and fusion partner in the pathogenesis of CML and EMS.