LESSONS LEARNED:In abiraterone- and/or enzalutamide-refractory metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients, selinexor led to prostate-specific antigen and/or radiographic responses in a subset of patients, indicating clinical activity in this indication.Despite twice-a-week dosing and maximal symptomatic management, selinexor was associated with significant anorexia, nausea, and fatigue in mCRPC patients refractory to second-generation anti-androgen therapies, limiting further clinical development in this patient population.This study highlights the challenge of primary endpoint selection for phase II studies in the post-abiraterone and/or post-enzalutamide mCRPC space. BACKGROUND:Selinexor is a first-in-class selective inhibitor of nuclear export compound that specifically inhibits the nuclear export protein Exportin-1 (XPO-1), leading to nuclear accumulation of tumor suppressor proteins. METHODS:This phase II study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of selinexor in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) refractory to abiraterone and/or enzalutamide. RESULTS:Fourteen patients were enrolled. Selinexor was initially administered at 65 mg/m2 twice a week (days 1 and 3) and was subsequently reduced to 60 mg flat dose twice a week (days 1 and 3), 3 weeks on, 1 week off, to improve tolerability. The median treatment duration was 13 weeks. At a median follow-up of 4 months, two patients (14%) had ≥50% prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline, and seven patients (50%) had any PSA decline. Of eight patients with measurable disease at baseline, two (25%) had a partial response and four (50%) had stable disease as their best radiographic response. Five patients (36%) experienced serious adverse events (SAEs; all unrelated to selinexor), and five patients (36%) experienced treatment-related grade 3-4 AEs. The most common drug-related adverse events (AEs) of any severity were anorexia, nausea, weight loss, fatigue, and thrombocytopenia. Three patients (21%) came off study for unacceptable tolerability. CONCLUSION:Selinexor demonstrated clinical activity and poor tolerability in mCRPC patients refractory to second-line anti-androgenic agents.