In this prospective, randomized clinical trial, correlates of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) were assessed using a baseline questionnaire among 68 rural women living with AIDS (WLA) in India. Unadjusted analyses revealed positive relationships of ART adherence with Hindu religion and support from spouses and parents, whereas negative associations were found with depression, poor quality of life, and having 10 or more HIV symptoms. Multiple linear regression analysis also revealed that WLA who were Hindu, not depressed, had ART support from spouses and parents, and perceived some benefit from ART, were more adherent to ART than their respective counterparts. This study reveals the unique challenges which rural WLA experience and the need to mitigate these challenges early in ART treatment. Further, the findings enable the refinement of an intervention program that will focus on strengthening ART adherence among rural WLA. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.