This study explores outcome variation among women offenders who participated in gender-responsive substance abuse treatment (GRT). To identify subgroups of participants that may differentially benefit from this treatment, secondary analyses examined the interaction between randomization into GRT and a history of abuse (physical/sexual) on depression and number of substances used post treatment. The sample consisted of 115 incarcerated women assessed at baseline and 6 and 12 months post parole. Longitudinal regression showed that women reporting abuse randomized into GRT had significantly reduced odds of depression (odds ratio [OR] = .29, p < .05, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.10, 0.86]) and lowered rates of number of substances used (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = .52, p < .05, 95% CI = [0.28, 0.98]), in comparison with those who reported abuse and were randomized to the non-GRT group. Findings suggest that GRT for women offenders who have experienced prior abuse may maximize the benefits of the trauma-informed, gender-sensitive intervention. © 2014 International Association for Correctional and Forensic Psychology.