© 2014 by the Journal of Biomedical Research. Marked elevations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) are not generally seen in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The objective of this study was to examine the clinical and laboratory characteristics of a large cohort of patients with HFpEF and markedly elevated BNP. A retrospective examination of 421 inpatients at a university hospital admitted with a diagnosis of HFpEF was performed. Clinical and echocardiographic data in 4 groups of patients with levels of BNP ≤ 100 pg/mL, 100-400 pg/mL, 400-1,000 pg/mL and > 1,000 pg/mL were compared. Patients with HFpEF and BNP > 1,000 pg/mL (28% of the population) were characterized by impaired renal function and greater use of anti-hypertensive medications. A subset of these patients with BNP > 1,000 pg/mL had normal renal function (21%) and were significantly older, more frequently female, and tended to have lower ejection fractions. Conversely, patients with HFpEF and BNP ≤ 100 pg/mL were younger and had preserved renal function. BNP was inversely related to the likelihood of subsequent admission for heart failure, but not to myocardial infarction or death. In conclusion: BNP > 1,000 pg/mL is seen in almost 1/3 of patients hospitalized with HFpEF. This elevation of BNP often reflects impaired renal function, but can also be seen in patients with preserved renal function but relatively impaired systolic function.