OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to determine if ablation that targets patient-specific atrial fibrillation (AF)-sustaining substrates (rotors or focal sources) is more durable than trigger ablation alone at preventing late AF recurrence. BACKGROUND:Late recurrence substantially limits the efficacy of pulmonary vein isolation for AF and is associated with pulmonary vein reconnection and the emergence of new triggers. METHODS:Three-year follow-up was performed of the CONFIRM (Conventional Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation With or Without Focal Impulse and Rotor Modulation) trial, in which 92 consecutive patients with AF (70.7% persistent) underwent novel computational mapping. Ablation comprised source (focal impulse and rotor modulation [FIRM]) and then conventional ablation in 27 patients (FIRM guided) and conventional ablation alone in 65 patients (FIRM blinded). Patients were followed with implanted electrocardiographic monitors when possible (85.2% of FIRM-guided patients, 23.1% of FIRM-blinded patients). RESULTS:FIRM mapping revealed a median of 2 (interquartile range: 1 to 2) rotors or focal sources in 97.7% of patients during AF. During a median follow-up period of 890 days (interquartile range: 224 to 1,563 days), compared to FIRM-blinded therapy, patients receiving FIRM-guided ablation maintained higher freedom from AF after 1.2 ± 0.4 procedures (median 1; interquartile range: 1 to 1) (77.8% vs. 38.5%, p = 0.001) and a single procedure (p < 0.001) and higher freedom from all atrial arrhythmias (p = 0.003). Freedom from AF was higher when ablation directly or coincidentally passed through sources than when it missed sources (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:FIRM-guided ablation is more durable than conventional trigger-based ablation in preventing 3-year AF recurrence. Future studies should investigate how ablation of patient-specific AF-sustaining rotors and focal sources alters the natural history of arrhythmia recurrence. (The Dynamics of Human Atrial Fibrillation; NCT01008722).