Purpose To investigate the association of weight loss with progression of cartilage changes at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging over 48 months in overweight and obese participants compared with participants of stable weight. Materials and Methods The institutional review boards of the four participating centers approved this HIPAA-compliant study. Included were (a) 640 participants (mean age, 62.9 years ± 9.1 [standard deviation]; 398 women) who were overweight or obese (body mass index cutpoints of 25 and 30 kg/m2, respectively) from the Osteoarthritis Initiative, with risk factors for osteoarthritis or mild to moderate radiographic findings of osteoarthritis, categorized into groups with (a) weight loss of more than 10% (n = 82), (b) weight loss of 5%-10% (n = 238), or (c) stable weight (n = 320) over 48 months. Participants were frequency-matched for age, sex, baseline body mass index, and Kellgren-Lawrence score. Two radiologists assessed cartilage and meniscus defects on right knee 3-T MR images at baseline and 48 months by using the modified Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS). Progression of the subscores was compared between the weight loss groups by using multivariable logistic regression models. Results Over 48 months, adjusted mean increase of cartilage WORMS was significantly smaller in the 5%-10% weight loss group (1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3, 1.9; P = .002) and even smaller in the group with more than 10% weight loss (1.0; 95% CI: 0.6, 1.4; P = .001) when compared with the stable weight group (2.3; 95% CI: 2.0, 2.7). Moreover, percentage of weight change was significantly associated with increase in cartilage WORMS (β = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.4; P = .007). Conclusion Participants who lost weight over 48 months showed significantly lower cartilage degeneration, as assessed with MR imaging; rates of progression were lower with greater weight loss. © RSNA, 2017.