BackgroundHeterogenous central nervous system (CNS) neurologic manifestations of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) are underrecognized. We review three cases of patients with PAN that illustrate a range of nervous system pathology, including the classical mononeuritis multiplex as well as uncommon brain and spinal cord vascular manifestations.
Case presentationCase 1 presented with mononeuritis multiplex and characteristic skin findings. Case 2 presented with thunderclap headache and myelopathy due to spinal artery aneurysm rupture. Both patients experienced disease remission upon treatment. Case 3 presented with headache and bulbar symptoms due to partially thrombosed intracranial aneurysms, followed by systemic manifestations related to visceral aneurysms. She demonstrated clinical improvement with treatment, was lost to follow-up, then clinically deteriorated and entered hospice care.
ConclusionsAlthough the peripheral manifestations of PAN are well-known, PAN association with CNS neurovascular disease is relatively underappreciated. Clinician awareness of the spectrum of neurologic disease is required to reduce diagnostic delay and promote prompt diagnosis and treatment with immunosuppressants.