The tremendous improvement in performance and cost of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have made them the technology of choice for electrical energy storage. While established battery chemistries and cell architectures for Li-ion batteries achieve good power and energy density, LIBs are unlikely to meet all the performance, cost, and scaling targets required for energy storage, in particular, in large-scale applications such as electrified transportation and grids. The demand to further reduce cost and/or increase energy density, as well as the growing concern related to natural resource needs for Li-ion have accelerated the investigation of so-called "beyond Li-ion" technologies. In this review, we will discuss the recent achievements, challenges, and opportunities of four important "beyond Li-ion" technologies: Na-ion batteries, K-ion batteries, all-solid-state batteries, and multivalent batteries. The fundamental science behind the challenges, and potential solutions toward the goals of a low-cost and/or high-energy-density future, are discussed in detail for each technology. While it is unlikely that any given new technology will fully replace Li-ion in the near future, "beyond Li-ion" technologies should be thought of as opportunities for energy storage to grow into mid/large-scale applications.