© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Background: Numerous cross-sectional studies of school-age children have observed that exposure to manganese (Mn) adversely affects neurodevelopment. However, few prospective studies have looked at the effects of both prenatal and postnatal Mn exposure on child neurodevelopment. Methods: We measured Mn levels in prenatal and early postnatal dentine of shed teeth and examined their association with behavior, cognition, memory, and motor functioning in 248 children aged 7, 9, and/or 10.5. years living near agricultural fields treated with Mn-containing fungicides in California. We used generalized linear models and generalized additive models to test for linear and nonlinear associations, and generalized estimating equation models to assess longitudinal effects. Results: We observed that higher prenatal and early postnatal Mn levels in dentine of deciduous teeth were adversely associated with behavioral outcomes, namely internalizing, externalizing, and hyperactivity problems, in boys and girls at 7 and 10.5 years. In contrast, higher Mn levels in prenatal and postnatal dentine were associated with better memory abilities at ages 9 and 10.5, and better cognitive and motor outcomes at ages 7 and 10.5. years, among boys only. Higher prenatal dentine Mn levels were also associated with poorer visuospatial memory outcomes at 9 years and worse cognitive scores at 7 and 10.5. years in children with higher prenatal lead levels (≥ 0.8. μg/dL). All these associations were linear and were consistent with findings from longitudinal analyses. Conclusions: We observed that higher prenatal and early postnatal Mn levels measured in dentine of deciduous teeth, a novel biomarker that provides reliable information on the developmental timing of exposures to Mn, were associated with poorer behavioral outcomes in school-age boys and girls and better motor function, memory, and/or cognitive abilities in school-age boys. Additional research is needed to understand the inconsistencies in the neurodevelopmental findings across studies and the degree to which differences may be associated with different Mn exposure pathways and biomarkers.