Bouc-Wen class models have been widely used to efficiently describe smooth hysteretic behavior in time history and random vibration analyses. This paper proposes a generalized Bouc-Wen model with sufficient flexibility in shape control to describe highly asymmetric hysteresis loops. Also introduced is a mathematical relation between the shape-control parameters and the slopes of the hysteresis loops, so that the model parameters can be identified systematically in conjunction with available parameter identification methods. For use in nonlinear random vibration analysis by the equivalent linearization method, closed-form expressions are derived for the coefficients of the equivalent linear system in terms of the second moments of the response quantities. As an example application, the proposed model is successfully fitted to the highly asymmetric hysteresis loops obtained in laboratory experiments for flexible connectors used in electrical substations. The model is then employed to investigate the effect of dynamic interaction between interconnected electrical substation equipment by nonlinear time-history and random vibration analyses.

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## Scholarly Works (144 results)

The. first-passage probability, describing the probability that a scalar process exceeds a prescribed threshold during an interval of time, is of great engineering interest. This probability is essential for estimating the reliability of a structural component whose response is a stochastic process. When considering the reliability of an engineering system composed of several interdependent components, the probability that two or more response processes exceed their respective safe thresholds during the operation time of the system is an equally essential quantity. This paper proposes simple and accurate formulas for approximating this joint first-passage probability of a vector process. The nth order joint first-passage probability is obtained from a recursive formula involving lower order joint first-passage probabilities and the out-crossing probability of the vector process over a safe domain. Interdependence between the crossings is approximately accounted for by considering the clumping of these events. The accuracy of the proposed formulas is examined by comparing analytical estimates with those obtained from Monte Carlo simulations for stationary Gaussian processes. As an example application, the reliability of a system of interconnected equipment items subjected to a stochastic earthquake excitation is estimated by linear programming bounds employing marginal and joint component fragilities obtained by the proposed formulas.