© 2020, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has exhibited huge application value in many fields including chemical synthesis, medicine, environmental remediation, and fuel cells. Traditional anthraquinone method for H2O2 commercial production has emerged the drawbacks of toxicity, H2 consumption and high energy input. Photocatalytic production of H2O2, which only requires water, oxygen, solar light and catalyst, is a novel and green technique, and potentially becomes one of the substitutes for anthraquinone method. Herein, we comprehensively review the research progress in the reported semiconductor catalysts, their modification strategies, as well as the related photocatalysis systems and mechanisms for the light driven H2O2 production. In detail, the photocatalysts are introduced from different families including ZnO, g-C3N4, TiO2, metal complexes, metal sulfides, Bi containing semiconductors, and carbon materials. In the meantime, their modification strategies are systematically evaluated aiming at the improvement in the structures and the photoelectrical properties of semiconductors, as well as their effective activation of molecular O2, and inhibition of H2O2 decomposition. Finally, this review is concluded with a brief summary and outlook, and the major challenges for the development of photocatalytic H2O2 production over the emerging semiconductor photocatalysts.