Purpose of review:Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is common, associated with a high degree of mortality and long-term functional impairment, and remains without effective proven treatments. Surgical hematoma evacuation can reduce mass effect and decrease cytotoxic effects from blood product breakdown. However, results from large clinical trials that have examined the role of open craniotomy have not demonstrated a significant outcome benefit over medical management. We review the data on minimally invasive surgery (MIS) that is emerging as a treatment modality for spontaneous ICH.
Recent findings:The use of MIS for supratentorial ICH has increased significantly in recent years and appears to be associated with decreased mortality and improved functional outcome compared with medical management. The role of MIS for posterior fossa ICH is ill-defined. Currently available MIS devices allow for stereotactic aspiration and thrombolysis, endoport-mediated evacuation, and endoscopic aspiration. Clinical series demonstrate that MIS can facilitate significant hematoma volume reduction and may be associated with less morbidity than conventional open surgical approaches.
Summary:MIS is an appealing treatment modality for supratentorial ICH and with careful patient selection and technologic advances has the potential to improve neurologic outcomes and reduce mortality. Early and extensive hematoma evacuation are important therapeutic targets and current studies are underway that have the potential to change the management for ICH patients.