The identification of autoantigens remains a critical challenge for understanding and treating autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1), a rare monogenic form of autoimmunity, presents as widespread autoimmunity with T and B cell responses to multiple organs. Importantly, autoantibody discovery in APS1 can illuminate fundamental disease pathogenesis, and many of the antigens found in APS1 extend to more common autoimmune diseases. Here, we performed proteome-wide programmable phage-display (PhIP-Seq) on sera from a cohort of people with APS1 and discovered multiple common antibody targets. These novel APS1 autoantigens exhibit tissue-restricted expression, including expression in enteroendocrine cells, pineal gland, and dental enamel. Using detailed clinical phenotyping, we find novel associations between autoantibodies and organ-restricted autoimmunity, including a link between anti-KHDC3L autoantibodies and premature ovarian insufficiency, and between anti-RFX6 autoantibodies and diarrheal-type intestinal dysfunction. Our study highlights the utility of PhIP-Seq for extensively interrogating antigenic repertoires in human autoimmunity and the importance of antigen discovery for improved understanding of disease mechanisms.