BACKGROUND:An increase in potential HIV elite controllers (EC) and anecdotal reports of antiretroviral therapy (ART) use among South African blood donors led us to verify EC status. METHODS:Stored plasma samples from potential EC were tested for ART drugs. Demographic and temporal associations were examined using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS:Of 226 potential EC, 150 (66.4%) had detectable ART with increasing prevalence by year (OR = 7.57 for 2016 vs 2010, 95% confidence interval, 1.96-32.17). DISCUSSION:False presumptive EC status due to undisclosed ART represents a growing proportion of potential EC donors in South Africa coincident with the country's ART rollout.