An atmospheric pressure plasma source operating at temperatures below 150°C and fed with 1.0-3.0 volume% oxygen in helium was used to activate the surfaces of the native oxide on silicon, carbon-fiber reinforced epoxy composite, stainless steel type 410, and aluminum alloy 2024. Helium and oxygen were passed through the plasma source, whereby ionization occurred and ~1016 cm-3 oxygen atoms, ~1015 cm-3 ozone molecules and ~1016 cm-3 metastable oxygen molecules (O2 1Δg) were generated. The plasma afterglow was directed onto the substrate material located 4 mm downstream. Surface properties of the plasma treated materials have been investigated using water contact angle (WCA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The work presented herein establishes atmospheric-pressure plasma as a surface preparation technique that is well suited for surface activation and enhanced adhesive bond strength in a variety of materials. Atmospheric plasma activation presents an environmentally friendly alternative to wet chemical and abrasive methods of surface preparation.
Attenuated total internal reflection infrared spectroscopy was used to study the aging mechanism of the native oxide on silicon. During storage at ambient conditions, the water contact angle of a clean surface increased from <5° to 40° over a period of 12 hours. When stored under a nitrogen purge, the water contact angle of a clean surface increased from <5° to 30° over a period of 40-60 hours. The change in contact angle resulted from the adsorption of nonanal onto the exposed surface hydroxyl groups. The rate of adsorption of nonanal under a nitrogen purged atmosphere ranged from 0.378±0.011 hr-1 to 0.182±0.008 hr-1 molecules/(cm2*s), decreasing as the fraction of hydrogen-bonded hydroxyl groups increased from 49% to 96% on the SiO2 surface. The adsorption of the organic contaminant could be suppressed indefinitely by storing the silicon wafers in the presence of activated carbon or in a freezer at -22°C.
The enhancement of adhesive bond strength and durability for carbon-fiber reinforced epoxy composite, stainless steel type 410, and aluminum alloy 2024 was demonstrated with the atmospheric pressure helium-oxygen plasma. All surfaces studied were converted from a hydrophobic state with a water contact angle of 65° to 80° into a hydrophilic state with a water contact angle between 20° and 40° within 5 seconds of plasma exposure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that the carbon atoms on the carbon-fiber/epoxy composite were oxidized, yielding 17 atom% carboxylic acid groups, 10% ketones or aldehydes and 9% alcohols. Analysis of stainless steel and aluminum by XPS illustrate oxidation of the metal surface and an increase in the concentration of hydroxyl groups in the oxide film. Following plasma activation, the total hydroxyl species concentration on stainless steel increased from 31% to 57%, while aluminum exhibited an increase from 4% to 16% hydroxyl species. Plasma activation of the surface led to an increase in bond strength of the different surfaces by up to 150% when using Cytec FM300 and FM300-2 epoxy adhesives. Wedge crack extension tests following plasma activation revealed cohesive failure percentages of 97% for carbon-fiber/epoxy composite bonded to stainless steel, and 96% for aluminum bonded to itself. The bond strength and durability of the substrates correlated with changes in the specific surface chemistry, not the wetting angle or the morphological properties of the material. This suggests that enhanced chemical bonding at the interface was responsible for the improvement in mechanical properties following plasma activation.
The surface preparation of polymers and composites using atmospheric pressure plasmas is a promising technique for replacing traditional methods of surface preparation by sanding, grit blasting or peel ply. After oxygen plasma activation and joining the materials together with epoxy, one observes 100% cohesive failure within the cured film adhesive. Depending on the material, the lap shear strength can be increased several fold over that achieved by either solvent wiping or abrasion. The trends in adhesion with plasma exposure time do not correlate well with surface wetting or roughness; instead they correlate with the fraction of the polymer surface sites that are converted into carboxylic acid groups.