Recent evidence has strongly supported that the rate of aging is controlled, at least to some extent, by evolutionarily conserved nutrient sensing pathways (e.g. the insulin/IGF-1-signaling, mTOR, AMPK, and sirtuins) from worms to humans. These pathways are also commonly involved in carcinogenesis and cancer metabolism. Agents (e.g. metformin, resveratrol, and Rhodiola) that target these nutrient sensing pathways often have both anti-aging and anti-cancer efficacy. These agents not only reprogram energy metabolism of malignant cells, but also target normal postmitotic cells by suppressing their conversion into senescent cells, which confers systematic metabolism benefits. These agents are fundamentally different from chemotherapy (e.g. paclitaxel and doxorubicin) or radiation therapy that causes molecular damage (e.g. DNA and protein damages) and thereby no selection resistance may be expected. By reviewing molecular mechanisms of action, epidemiological evidence, experimental data in tumor models, and early clinical study results, this review provides information supporting the promising use of agents with both anti-aging and anti-cancer efficacy for cancer chemoprevention.