© The Royal Society of Chemistry 2020. Organic thermoelectric materials and generators are a promising field of research due to numerous attractive characteristics that suggest the ability to overcome the shortcomings of existing inorganic TE systems. This book aims to reprise some of the key directions in this field and provide some context on the key developments and opportunities that remain to be explored. Therefore, to facilitate comprehension of the book, this introduction chapter will present a brief overview of essential topics spanning the fields of chemistry, materials science, engineering, and physics, including a brief historical overview of organic TE materials. TE measurement techniques, including carrier-energy and thermal transport in organic TE systems, will also be briefly discussed, as they are relevant to understanding what challenges remain in understanding and optimizing the performance of these organic TE materials.