Fluconazole-induced alopecia is a significant problem for patients receiving long-term therapy. We evaluated the hair cycle changes of fluconazole in a rat model and investigated potential molecular mechanisms. Plasma and tissue levels of retinoic acid were not found to be causal. Human patients with alopecia attributed to fluconazole also underwent detailed assessment and in both our murine model and human cohort fluconazole induced telogen effluvium. Future work further examining the mechanism of fluconazole-induced alopecia should be undertaken.