This study investigated the inhibitory effect of arctigenin, a novel anti-inflammatory lignan, on prostate cancer in obese conditions both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro obese models were established by co-culture of mouse adipocytes 3T3-L1 with androgen-sensitive LNCaP human prostate cancer cells, or by culturing LNCaP cells in adipocytes-conditioned medium. Arctigenin significantly inhibited LNCaP proliferation, along with decreased androgen receptor (AR) and increased Nkx3.1 cellular expression. Male severe combined immunodeficiency mice were subcutaneously implanted with human prostate cancer LAPC-4 xenograft tumors for in vivo study. Mice were fed high-fat (HF) diet and orally given arctigenin at 50 mg/kg body weight daily or vehicle control for 6 weeks. Tumor bearing HF control mice showed a significant increase in serum free fatty acids (FFAs) and decrease in subcutaneous/peritoneal fat depots compared to non-tumor bearing control mice. Arctigenin intervention significantly reduced tumor growth by 45%, associated with decreased circulating FFAs and adipokines/cytokines including IGF-1, VEGF, and MCP-1, along with decreased AR, Ki67, and microvessel density and increased Nkx3.1 expression in tumors. These results indicate the strong ability of arctigenin to co-target obesity and tumor itself in inhibition of prostate tumor growth at a lower concentration compared to most phytochemicals.