We examine the post-seismic change in the groundwater level following the 1999 (Mw = 7.5) Chi-Chi earthquake in central Taiwan, as recorded by a network of 70 evenly distributed hydrological stations over a large alluvial fan near the epicenter. Four types of post-seismic responses may be distinguished: In type 1, the groundwater level declined exponentially with time following a coseismic rise. This was the most common response in the study area and occurred in unconsolidated sediments on the Choshui River fan. In type 2, the groundwater level rose exponentially with time following a coseismic fall. This occurred in the deformed and fractured sedimentary rocks in the foothills near the Chelungpu fault that ruptured in the Chi-Chi earthquake. In type 3, the groundwater level continued to decline with time following a coseismic fall. This also occurred in the deformed and fractured sedimentary rocks near the ruptured fault. Finally, in type 4, the groundwater level, following a coseismic rise, stayed at the same level or even rose with time before it eventually declined. This occurred mostly in unconsolidated sediments along the coast of central Taiwan and along the Peikang Stream. We analyze these post-seismic responses by using a one-dimensional model. Together with the results from well test, the analysis show that the type 1 response may be explained by an aquifer model with coseismic recharge and post-seismic subhorizontal discharge across a length of 500-5,000 m; the type 2 response may be explained by a model of coseismic discharge and post-seismic recharge from surface water; the type 3 response may be explained by a model of coseismic discharge and post-seismic subhorizontal discharge across a length of 500-5,000 m; and the type 4 response may be explained by a model of coseismic recharge and sustained post-seismic recharge from surface water. The characteristic time for the post-seismic changes is similar to that for the groundwater-level decline during dry seasons before the earthquake, suggesting that there was no earthquake-induced changes in the aquifer properties (i.e., hydraulic conductivity), confirming the earlier results from recession analyses of the post-seismic streamflow elsewhere after several earthquakes.